From a biological perspective, all of the following neurotransmitters are implicit in the anxiety response except:

neurotransmitters are implicit in the anxiety


Anxiety is the natural reaction that occurs when something triggers the fight-or-flight response. It comes from the neurotransmitters firing in your brain and makes you feel stressed, worried, and edgy. Three neurotransmitters are involved in the stress response. The first is epinephrine. When it triggers, you feel your heart race, shallow breathing, and sweating.

Acetylcholine:   Acetylcholine (ACh) is derived from choline, as well as from the diet. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter most associated with muscle movement and memory function. Of all the neurotransmitters involved in anxiety response, acetylcholine is the only one that does not contribute to the feeling of fear itself. When Acetylcholine acts on receptors in our brain, it actually suppresses fear responses and makes us feel safe and at ease.

Neural transmitters associated with anxiety disorders: Acetylcholine, GABA, Serotonin, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine

The neurons in the brain and central nervous system release neurotransmitters when theyfire, resulting in a message being sent from one neuron to another. Dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine/ norepinephrine, and GABA are all neurotransmitters that act on specific post-synaptic receptors within the brain to help regulate anxiety.

Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system that causes skeletal muscles to contract. Dopamine plays a role in reward-motivated behavior, regulates movement, cognition and emotion. Norepinephrine is involved in arousal and is one of the key chemicals involved in the fight-or-flight response. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that functions as a modulator between other neurotransmitters, and thus impacts communication between neurons by inhibiting or facilitating release of other neurotransmitters.

Serotonin (5-HT), Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and GABA.

The brain chemical released by the amygdala in response to a threat, triggering the fight-or-flight response, is:

You know the feeling: Fidgeting, sweaty palms and heart racing! This is the anxiety response. The symptoms are different for everybody, but they all share one thing in common – they’re not fun! They can have a huge impact on your life and the lives of those around you. But there are ways to cope…

Norepinephrine is an excitatory neurotransmitter that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. Increased norepinephrine available at the synaptic cleft will stimulate skeletal muscle, elevate heart rate and blood pressure, decrease gastrointestinal activity, and have a stimulating effect on alertness. Norepinephrine has a direct action on the locus conerus, the hypothalamus and even on blood vessels.

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From a biological perspective, all of the following neurotransmitters are implicit in the anxiety response except:

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