HLT-314V: Health Care Systems.

What are healthcare systems?

Health care systems can be defined as the method by which healthcare is financed, organized, and delivered to a target population. It includes issues of access (for whom and to which services), expenditures, and resources (healthcare workers and facilities).

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Purpose of health care systems.

The most important purpose of health care is to enhance quality of life by enhancing health. Therefore, health care systems must concentrate on creating social profit to fulfill their promise to society.

Types of health care systems.

There are four major healthcare models namely:

1.       The Beveridge model.

William Beveridge first established this model in United Kingdom in 1948. The Beveridge model is a health care system in which the government provides health care for all its citizens through income tax payments.

2.       The Bismarck model.

The Bismarck model is also called the social health insurance model. It is a incomplete health care system, in which people pay a fee to a fund that in turn pays health care activities, that can be provided by state-owned institutions, other government body-owned institutions, or in a private institution.

3.       National health insurance and

National health insurance is also called statutory health insurance. It is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care. Nonetheless, it may be administered by the public sector, the private sector, or a combination of both.

4.       The out-of-pocket model.

The out-of-pocket model is a health care model in which patients must pay for their procedures out of pocket. Therefore, the wealthy citizens get professional medical care while the poor don’t or get poor medical care unless they can somehow come up with enough money to pay for it.

What is Transcultural nursing?

Transcultural nursing is a comparative study of cultures to understand similarities (culture universal) and difference (culture-specific) across human groups (Leininger, 1991).

What is Transcultural Nursing theory?

The transcultural nursing theory or culture care theory by Madeleine Leininger includes knowing and comprehending different cultures with respect to nursing and health-illness caring practices, beliefs and values with the goal of providing effective nursing care services to people according to their cultural values and health-illness context.

Major concepts of Transcultural nursing theory include:

·         Transcultural nursing or transcultural healthcare.

Transcultural nursing is being sensitive to cultural differences as you focus on individual patients, their needs, and their preferences. As a transcultural nurse, you can show your patients your respect for their culture by asking them about it, their beliefs, and related health care practices.

·         Ethno-nursing.

A research method for describing, documenting, and explaining nursing care phenomena by the study of the beliefs, values, and practices concerning nursing care that belong to a specific culture, as reflected by the language, beliefs, and values of the members of that culture.

·         Nursing.

The scientific application of principles of care related to prevention of illness and care during illness. In short, nursing is the profession of a nurse.

·         Professional nursing care or professional caring.

Professional nursing caring is supporting the patient in the processes of identifying, determining and acting upon experiences relevant to health and healing. Cultural congruent nursing care.

·         Health.

Health is a relative state in which one is able to function well physically, mentally, socially, and spiritually. Therefore, the individual is able to express the full range of one’s unique potentialities within the environment in which one is living.

·         Human beings.

Human beings refer to all of the living human inhabitants of the earth.

·         Society and environment.

·         Worldview.

Worldview is a collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group

·         Environmental context.

·         Culture, culture care, and culture care diversity and culture care universality.

Culture is a term that includes the social behavior and standards found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups. On the other hand, cultural care refers to multiple aspects of culture that influence and enable a person or group to improve their human condition or to deal with illness or death.

  •   Cultural and social structure dimensions.

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